Monday, July 4, 2016

TRB | UGC NET | Education Paper II | WESTERN SCHOOL OF PHILOSOPHY

WESTERN SCHOOL OF PHILOSOPHY:
by
Krithika.S and Kalaivani.M
Assistant Professors in Physical Science, Dr.G.R.Damodaran College of Education at Sulur in Coimbatore.
  1. Naturalism, 
  2. Idealism 
  3. Pragmatism with reference to concept of knowledge, reality, values their educational implications for aims, contents and methods of education
   Naturalism

Idealism
Pragmatism

Fundamental Principles

1.      Nature alone is entire reality. It is ready-made.

2.      The outlook of the naturalist is materialistic.

3.      They do not believe in the existence of God.


4.      Ultimate reality is physical.

5.      Universe is natural creation.


6.      They do not believe in value, soul, God, religion and divine spirit.


7.      Physical as natural laws are universal.



1.      Mind and thought are real.


2.      The outlook of an idealist is spiritual.


3.      Believe in the existence of God.


4.      Ultimate reality is spiritual.

5.      Universe has been created by God.


6.      Eternal spiritual values never change. Truth, goodness and beauty are eternal values.


7.      Spiritual laws are universal.


1.      Reality lies in the process, it is still in making, not ready-made.

2.      The outlook of the pragmatist is social.


3.      Pragmatist believes in the existence of God to an extent.

4.      Ultimate reality is utility.


5.      Universe has been created by man.


6.      According to them values are changeable and are created by man. It is relative to time, place and circumstance.

7.      Now laws are universal.
Educational Principles

1.      Nature is the base “Follow nature” is  the slogan


1.      Spiritually is the base. Emphasis is on spiritual and moral environment.



1.      Society is the base. Emphasis is on physical and social environment.



Aims of Education

1.      The aim of education according to naturalism is self –expression.

2.      It emphasis the autonomous development of the individuality.

3.      Adjustment to environment.




1.      The aim of education according to idealism is self –realization.


2.      It aims at spiritual development.



3.      Presentation and enrichment of cultural environment.




1.      The aim of education according to pragmatism is dynamic in nature.

2.      It aims at social efficiency.



3.      Adjustment with present and to change the presents.

Curriculum

1.      Emphasis in on sciences.


2.      Curriculum is based on need, ability, and aptitude and on the nature of the child.


1.      Emphasis is on ethic and study of humanities.

2.      Based on moral, spiritual and intellectual values.


1.      Emphasis is on practical utilitarian subjects.

2.      Based on the principles of utility, integration and child’s natural interests and experience.
Discipline

1.      Uncontrolled freedom, discipline through natural consequences.



1.      Emphasis freedom and social discipline


1.      Restricted freedom and social discipline
Teachers role

1.      Teacher role is behind the scene


2.      Teacher is not interfering in the child’s activities.



1.      Teacher‘s position is very high. They have high expectation of the teacher.
2.      Teacher guides, directs, suggests and controls the situation.


1.      Teacher occupies an important place in education.

2.      Teacher puts the pupil in the position of discover or experimenter.



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